Australian Flag

Capital: Canberra


Total Population: 24,127,159

Natural Increase: 1.4%

Density: 3 Inhabitants/km²

Urban Population: 89.6%

Population of Main Urban Zones:

  • Sydney: 2,908,643
  • Melbourne: 2,707,529
  • Brisbane: 1,874,426
  • Perth: 1,627,576
  • Adelaide: 1,103,979
  • Gold Cost: 533,659
  • Canberra: 391,473

Ethnic Origins: Australia is a multicultural nation with more than 170 different nationalities whose diversity is continually growing. 92% of the population is of European origin (mostly English, Irish, Scottish, Italian and Greek), with 7% of Asian origin and 1% who identify as Indigenous Australian. (Australian Bureau of Statistics – ABS).

Official Language: The official language of Australia is English. English is also the common language in different sectors such as the legislature, justice, administrative services, work and correspondence.

Other Languages: In Australia minority groups use more than 200 languages including the Aborigine languages and immigrant languages (Italian, Greek, Cantonese, Lebanese, Vietnamese, Turkish, etc.)

Business Language(s): English.


  • Protestant: 30%
  • Catholic: 25%
  • Unspecified: 9%
  • Buddhist: 2.5%
  • Muslim: 2.2%

A declining majority of people (58% according to certain surveys) say they are Christian. Most Protestant Churches, except the Anglican Church, have merged to form the Uniting Church; the Catholic Church has a large following. There are also non-Christian minorities. 20% of the population say they are non-believers. While traditional Aboriginal religions exist and are closely linked to culture and the land, many Indigenous Australians were converted to Christianity after Australia’s colonisation.

Country Overview

Time Zones: There are 5 standard time zones in Australia:

  • UTC+8:00: Australian Western Standard Time (AWST)
  • UTC+8:45: Australian Central Western Standard Time (ACWST)
  • UTC+9:30: Australian Central Standard Time (ACST)
  • UTC+10:00: Australian Eastern Standard Time: (AEST)
  • UTC+10:30: Lord Howe Standard Time (LHST)

Currency: The national Australian currency is Australian Dollar (AUD)

Area: 7,741,220 km²

Type of State: Commonwealth of Australia. Federal State of 6 States and 2 Territories based on a parliamentary democracy.

Type of Economy: High-income economy, OECD member. Services are dominant in the economy; abundant natural resources; greatest number of national parks and natural reserves in the world.

HDI*: 0.935/1

HDI World Rank: 2/188

*Note: The HDI, Human Development Index, is an indicator which synthesises several data such as life expectancy, level of education, professional careers, access to culture etc.